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Title: Morphology controlled n-type TiO2 and stoichiometry adjusted p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for photovoltaic applications
Authors: Varadharajaperumal, S.
Sripan, C.
Ganesan, R.
Hegde, G.
Satyanarayan, M.N.
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: Crystal Growth and Design, 2017, Vol.17, 10, pp.5154-5162
Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of stoichiometry adjusted Cu2Zn1.5Sn1.2S4.4 thin film (FTO/TiO2/CdS/CZTS/Au) photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV devices were developed using the window layer of rutile TiO2 nanoarchitecture arrays, i.e., one-dimensional (1D) nanorods and three-dimensional (3D) combined/ hierarchical structures (nanorods with microspheres). Onedimensional (1D) nanorods and 3D combined structures of TiO2 window layers were synthesized by a hydrothermal method with different solvents without any assistance of surfactants and templates. We achieved two kinds of TiO2 nanostructures by tuning the precursor concentrations and volume by keeping a constant growth time and temperature. The detailed structural properties were studied using X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Phase formation and chemical state of the prepared samples were examined by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphology and luminescence studies of TiO2 nanostructures were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence techniques. The current-voltage performance of fabricated devices were measured under an AM 1.5 solar simulator. It is observed that combined structure PV device shows better efficiency (1.45%) than the nanorods alone structure (0.55%). Present work is a first attempt made to construct the inverted CZTS based solar cells. This study establishes the window layer of hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures based morphology that offers a great potential for the development of high-efficiency nonstoichiometric CZTS based solar cells. 2017 American Chemical Society.
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