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Title: Effect of O2, N2 and H2 on annealing of pad printed high conductive Ag-Cu nano-alloy electrodes
Authors: Manjunath, G.
Anusha, P.
Salian, A.
Gupta, B.
Mandal, S.
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Materials Research Express, 2018, Vol.5, 1, pp.-
Abstract: In this study, annealing of pad printed Ag-Cu based conducting ink was studied in oxidizing, inert and reducing atmosphere to verify its oxidation dependent conductivity. Ag-Cu manually was formulated adopting polyol method; where silver nitrate and copper nitrate serve as initial metal precursors. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), ethylene glycol and sodium borohydride act as a stabilizer, solvent and reducing agent respectively. The nanoalloys were with an average particle size ?48 15 nm, capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone to avoid agglomeration and stable in non-polar solvents. Formation of nanoalloy, Ag 90 wt%-Cu 10 wt%, was verified through a peak shift in UV-visible spectroscopy, found at 470 nm along with Nelson-Relay curve fitting and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. The calculated lattice parameter of nanoalloy ?4.034 , was in between pure silver and copper. The crystallite size was calculated using Debye-Scherrer, Williamson-Hall isotropic strain model and Halder-Wagner method. Electrode patterns were printed on a glass substrate by pad printing and were annealed under O2, N2 and H2 atmosphere to study the oxidation kinetics of copper. A maximum conductivity of -6.6 ;105 S m-1 was observed in inert atmosphere annealing as the conductivity is solely depends on the oxidation of copper; appears with uttermost Cu0 and least Cu2+ in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High conductive space required between manually and dispersion ink can have a potential application as an electrode in printed electronics. Further refinement of size of the nanopaticles by polyol method could help to obtain the effect of quantum confinement. 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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