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Title: Reduced graphene oxide derived from used cell graphite and its green fabrication as an eco-friendly supercapacitor
Authors: Sudhakar, Y.N.
Selvakumar, M.
Bhat, D.K.
Senthil, Kumar, S.
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: RSC Advances, 2014, Vol.4, 104, pp.60039-60051
Abstract: Graphite extracted from a used primary cell was converted into reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using calcium carbonate together with rapid and local Joule heating by microwave irradiation. Electrodes were prepared by ultrasonically dispersing rGO in biodegradable poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) binder and coating this on recyclable poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) sheet using a low cost screen printing technique. The use of the same polymer (PVP) as a binder, in addition to as the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), enhances the compatibility and ionic conductivity of the hydrophobic rGO electrode in the supercapacitor system. Further, the phosphoric acid (H<inf>3</inf>PO<inf>4</inf>)-doped biodegradable SPE was screen printed for the first time on the rGO electrodes. Ionic conductivity and dielectric studies of the SPE were carried out at different temperatures and different dopant acid concentrations. The morphology, composition and structure of the graphene electrode components were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed a single layer or a few layers of rGO sheets and selected area electron diffraction showed the presence of slight defects. The fabricated environmentally friendly, industrially favorable and green supercapacitor showed a specific capacitance of 201 F g-1 and cyclic stability with 97% retention of the initial capacitance over 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the performance of this green supercapacitor is comparable to that of those fabricated using rGO synthesized from commercial graphite and in other literature reports. 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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