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Title: Hydroxyapatite a promising sunscreen filter
Authors: Pal, A.
Hadagalli, K.
Bhat, P.
Goel, V.
Mandal, S.
Issue Date: 2020
Citation: Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, 2020, Vol.56, 1, pp.345-351
Abstract: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been known to cause skin cancer, erythema, and sunburn. Continuous efforts have been made to make sunscreens more efficient and non-toxic. Inorganic sunscreens like TiO2 and ZnO are continued to be used for a few decades, and they are efficient in giving protection against harmful UV radiation, but they are photochemically active as well. They generate free radicals upon irradiation, which leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which is harmful to the human skin. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a biocompatible material as it has a composition the same as the mineral content of the human bone; therefore, it is suitable for the dermatological application. Though HA itself does not provide protection against UV, studies on doped HA with various ions showed excellent performance. Pure HA absorbs only between 200 and 340 nm, with an intense band below 247 nm. HA doped with bivalent Zn2+, Fe2+, and trivalent Fe3+ and Cr3+, showed absorbance in the entire UV region. TiO2 provides absorbance in the entire UV range, while ZnO does so only in UVA. Compared to HA (refractive index, n = 1.6), TiO2 (n = 2.6) and ZnO (n = 1.9) have higher refractive index, which gives unwanted whitening effect. Additional properties can be brought in HA composites by adding material while retaining their individual properties. As HA is not photocatalytic, it does not lead to a generation of free radicals. This paper throws light on several aspects of HA-based sunscreen filters as an emerging future cosmetic material, and brief analysis and conclusions. 2019, Australian Ceramic Society.
Appears in Collections:1. Journal Articles

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